These are adapted from the textbook Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation (2nd Edition) by Amy Brown. I hope to add more troubleshooting and substituting tips here soon!
Yeast Bread Troubleshooting
The stages of an egg white foam.
Take a look at these pictures of an egg white being beaten at room temperature with 1/8 tsp of cream of tartar and get to know your peaks!
How to tell when your meat is done: The Hand Test
When you can’t use a thermometer, or your meat is too thin to get an accurate reading, use The Hand Test to judge how well done your meat is.